Dynamic tests simulate mechanical force inputs to a structure. That force could be induced by usage, such as inertial effects on aircraft electronics during flight. Or the force could be induced externally by accident, such as a piece of crated office equipment bumping during shipping.
Examples of dynamic tests are vibration and shock testing. Climatic tests simulate inputs due to the natural environments, sometimes accompanied by motion. Examples include temperature, humidity and salt fog.
In either dynamic or climatic testing, test inputs may closely match or simulate expected service environments, or they may exceed expected service environments to provide a factor of safety or they may be purposely exceeded in order to induce failures (if any) to occur quickly. The latter can be called stimulation.
Although acceleration testing (as on a centrifuge) is often lumped with climatic testing for organizational purposes, it is actually a dynamic test.